Note that the species on onion has not been identified in Pacific islands where damage to shallots has been seen. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 61:235-240. Common cutworm, beet armyworm. Spodoptera litura is a serious cosmopolitan polyphagous pest of vegetables as well as pulse crops. The body of the moth is grey-brown, 15-20 mm long, with a wingspan of 30-40 mm (Photo 5). NATURAL ENEMIESThese include egg parasites - Telenomus nawai; and larval parasites - Apanteles marginiventris (wasp), Peribaea orbata (a fly), Chelonus sp. Different species in the Genus and their common names. Taxonomy . Local Common Names Germany: Aegyptische Baumwollraupe; Asiatischer Baumwollwurm; Baumwollblattraupe; Baumwollraupe, Aegyptische; India: ladde purugu; telugu Israel: haprodenia Italy: larva bruna con macchie vellutate Japan: hasumon-yoto Netherlands: eiernestrups Turkey: pamuk yaprak kurdu Bibliographic References. Scientific Name. Species: Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) Common name: taro catterpillar cluster caterpillar common cutworm cotton leafworm cotton worm tobacco caterpillar Damaging stage: Larvae Crops Affected: Cucurbits, solanaceous, legumes, brassicas, cotton, tobacco, onion Characteristic Damage: Newly hatched larvae attack their hosts in cluster and feed gregariously by 1999: Handbook of the New Zealand Insect Names: Common and Scientific Names for Insects and Alllied Organisms. Photo 2. ), Myzus persicae (Sulz.) Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page For about 60 years, the Egyptian cotton leafworm was known as Prodenia litura. Keywords: Armyworm, Spodoptera litura, insecticides, biological control agents INTRODUCTION ... another which leading to the common name as armyworm (Nagoshi et al., 2011). Egg: Egg masses appear golden brown. Egyptian cotton leafworm, Mediterranean brocade. Scientific Name. Spodoptera litura. The larvae also feeds on the developing seeds in capitulum. 2016 ). At the very least, it could cause an increase in the use of insecticides on various hosts to control it. In Asia Pacific region, The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius is a leaf and fruit feeding generalist insect of the order Lepidoptera and a destructive agriculture pest. Note that the species on onion has not been identified in Pacific islands where damage to shallots has been seen. CULTURAL CONTROLIt is important that growers visit their gardens frequently and regularly, twice a week is recommended, to check if there are egg masses and young caterpillars on the leaves. Other common names . Spodoptera litura has the MD setae in a straight line on the head, P2 almost dorsad of P1, a rectangular mandible, and the apex of the spinneret rounded. 2008 , Montezano et al. It is recorded from Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. Photo 5 Wikipedia: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spodoptera_litura). This moth is found in Asia, with some specific problematic pest population reports occurring in Cambodia, Hong Kong, India, the Pacific islands, Guam, American Samoa, and Hawaii. Cutwormsand armyworms attack a number of crops and may cause significant damagedepending on severity of infestation. beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua. Bibliographic References. Spodoptera litura on capsicum, under protected cropping. (a fly), and many more. Authority. The larvae feed on the tender leaves, shoots, bracts and petals. Pest Management Science, 66 1273-1279. Egg mass and young caterpillars of EPPO Code: PRODLI. Look for the "scratch" marks left by the newly hatched larvae on the leaf surface. Common Name. Similar species . deeper into the leaf; in Species: Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) Common name: taro catterpillar cluster caterpillar common cutworm cotton leafworm cotton worm tobacco caterpillar Damaging stage: Larvae Crops Affected: Cucurbits, solanaceous, legumes, brassicas, cotton, tobacco, onion Characteristic Damage: Newly hatched larvae attack their hosts in cluster and feed gregariously by It was first discovered in North America about 1876, when it was found in Oregon, and it reached Florida in 1924. Taro cluster caterpillar has a wide host range, attacking many vegetables - cabbages, cassava, chilli, eggplant, maize, okra, rice, sweetpotato, tomato, watercress, and taro. Hosts Identification and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis using quantitative PCR in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)[J]. Common Name. ; Emberson, R.M. http://192.168.118.79:9052/index.php?title=Spodoptera_litura&oldid=8576, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Developmental stages & temperature-stressed larvae & larvae fed different diets, Developmental stages & larvae fed different diets, Different tissues, populations & larvae fed different diets, Different tissues, larvae treated with different insecticides, Different tissues, populations & temperature-stressed larvae, Larvae treated with different insecticides & starved larvae. The common cutworm (CCW, Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is one of the most serious pests of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Tobacco caterpillar : Spodoptera litura: Symptoms of damage. Mostly, taro cluster caterpillar is under control by natural enemies, and it is only very occasionally that outbreaks occur. Preferred Name Spodoptera litura (Fabricius, 1775) Taxon Concept NZOR Concept Id 5110332b-efc4-42e8-8da8-74cc214ca753 According to Scott, R.R. leaf. Widespread. Widespread. Effects of four host plants on susceptibility of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae to five insecticides and activities of detoxification esterases. There have bright yellow stripes along the top of the body. It has not established in the U.S. (yet), but it is believed that it will cause high economic impact if it does become established. In such cases, the larvae migrate in large groups from one field to another in search of food (hence the alternative name "armyworm").The caterpillars can also be a problem when crops are grown under protected cropping systems (Photos 6-8). ; Emberson, R.M. 27: Ahmad, M., and Mehmood R. (2015). was described by Guenee in 1852 ... . Thus, overwintering is generally limited to Arizona, Florida, and Texas. Spodoptera littoralis and S. litura were regarded as the same species under the name Prodenia litura Fabricius.Viette (1962) reviewed the species and suggested that there are two separate species S. littoralis and S. litura. Spodoptera litura is also known as the Oriental leafworm moth, Cluster caterpillar, Cotton leafworm, Tobacco cutworm, Tropical armyworm, Taro caterpillar, Tobacco budworm, Rice cutworm, and Cotton Cutworm. The relatively high egg viability and fecundity values observed are common for Spodoptera species. The cream to golden-brown egg masses (4-7 mm diameter) are covered with hairy scales from the tip of the abdomen of the female. CHEMICAL CONTROLPesticides are not normally recommended for the control of this moth on taro. Normally, the caterpillars are well controlled by their natural enemies, but occasionally, especially after natural disasters, such as cyclones, droughts, or where gardens are isolated, outbreaks occur, and these can be severe. Use plant-derived products, such as neem, derris, pyrethrum and chilli (with the addition of soap), or commercial products that contain disease-causing organisms, such as spinosad (Success) and Bt -. PloS one, 2013, 8(7): e68059. Look for the older caterpillars at night. Identification notes for Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera littoralis and some native Spodoptera moths - USDA APHIS PPQ; Steps for the dissection of male Spodoptera moths and notes on distinguishing S. litura and S. littoralis from native Spodoptera species - USDA APHIS PPQ; Data Sheets on Quarantine Pests - European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization As the caterpillars of Photos 6-8 Mani Mua, SPC, Sigatoka Research Station, Fiji. Economic Importance . datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Spodoptera litura (Fabricius, 1775) Spodoptera litura enlarge they eat Spodoptera litura. Common Name. Indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides has caused harm not only to non-target organisms, but have developed resistance against this target insect pest which … In the tropics of Asia and Oceania. Jump to navigation Jump to search. This fact sheet is a part of the app Pacific Pests and Pathogens. 1999: Handbook of the New Zealand Insect Names: Common and Scientific Names for Insects and Alllied Organisms. Habitat / Crop (s) damaged. Preferred Name Spodoptera litura (Fabricius, 1775) Taxon Concept NZOR Concept Id 5110332b-efc4-42e8-8da8-74cc214ca753 According to Scott, R.R. Spodoptera litura caterpillars on Basella species under protected cropping. It is the caterpillar (or larva) that does the damage. Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. This differs from S. littoralis , which has the MD setae in a curved line, P2 more widely spaced from each other than P1, a square shaped mandible, and the apex of the spinneret pointed. This page was last modified on 1 September 2017, at 04:45. The hindwings are greyish-white with grey margins. This differs from S. littoralis , which has the MD setae in a curved line, P2 more widely spaced from each other than P1, a square shaped mandible, and the apex of the spinneret pointed. As a polyphagous species, this pest has the potential to invade new areas and to adapt to new host plants. Threshold temperatures and thermal requirements for the development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). For definitive identification, it is necessary to dissect adult male internal parts. After hatching, the caterpillars stay together (hence the name "cluster caterpillar"). Helicoverpa armigera, previously Heliothis ... Often caterpillars of Spodoptera litura can be found on the same crops causing similar damage. Taro cluster caterpillar, taro armyworm, tobacco cutworm, tropical armyworm. Occurrences: 21; Spodoptera litura (Fabricius, 1775) – Asian Cotton Leafworm non-native. Common Name. S. littoralis is found widely in Africa, Mediterranean Europe and Middle Eastern countries. Spodoptera littoralis, also referred to as the African cotton leafworm or Egyptian cotton leafworm or Mediterranean brocade, is a species of moth in the family Noctuidae. Name. Hosts 2013b , 2014a , 2015b , Specht et al. Photo 3. Preferred name: Spodoptera litura. Widespread. Scientific Name. Previous/synonymised names: Spodoptera litura auctorum. Nishida, Gordon M., ed, 2002: null. Scientific name: Spodoptera litura Fabricius Common name: Armyworm/ cluster caterpillar: Scientific name: Spodoptera exigua Common name: Common cutworm/beet army worm . However, Viette (1962) demonstrated that S. littoralis is a species separate from S. litura. Common names. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 12: 100pp. Prodenia litura. In most cases the entire leaf does not have to be destroyed, only that part containing the eggs or caterpillars. Afterwards, they pupate in the soil for 7-10 days. Genus Spodoptera. It is seasonally common in annual and perennial Rao GVR, Wightman JA, Rao DVR, 1989. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Category: Spodoptera litura. Previous studies have documented that multiple mating in Spodoptera enhances their reproductive capacity, including fertility ( Kehat & Gordon 1975 , Sadek 2001 , Sadek & Anderson 2007 , Busato et al. Photo 6. Basic information. In this fact sheet, it is assumed to be Spodoptera exigua. Control of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. Tomato fruit borer, corn earworm, cotton bollworm. Apple iOS Edition, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spodoptera_litura. Photo 7. and Tetranychus urticae (Koch) by cold storage and fumigation. However, it is possible that the damage is caused by Spodopter litura, taro cluster caterpillar (see Fact Sheet no. The young caterpillars radiate from the egg masses (Photo 1), stripping the leaf surface and eating the leaf between the veins (Photos 2&3). Polyphagous on several hosts including castor, cotton, tobacco, groundnut, sorghum, maize, soybean, banana, guava, brinjal, beetroot, cabbage, … Spodoptera litura is an important polyphagous insect pest that causes widespread economic damage to vegetables and other crops, including ornamental plants in tropical and subtropical regions. Distribution. In the tropics of Asia and Oceania. Common cutworm, beet armyworm. fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. cotton cutworm, Spodoptera litura. The rice-cotton cutworm (Spodoptera litura) is a polyphagous pest of over 100 different host plants. In the tropics of Asia and Oceania. Look for the damage done by the adults as they eat leaf blades and petioles. Photo 1. Remove leaves with egg masses or young caterpillars - this is an effective control measure. Pukapuka: fieldspecimen+photo of caterpillar, 2/2004, G.McCormack with ID as probably Spodoptera litura . It is recorded from Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. Lu Y, Yuan M, Gao X, et al. Some authors mistakenly continue to regard the allopatric Old World cotton leafworm species S. littoralis and S. litura as the same species. Spodoptera litura has the MD setae in a straight line on the head, P2 almost dorsad of P1, a rectangular mandible, and the apex of the spinneret rounded. Photo 8. (wasp), Palexorista sp. Common Name. Spodoptera litura is an extremely serious pest, the larvae of which can defoliate many economically important crops. Spodoptera litura eating the underside of the Tobacco caterpillar, asian cotton leafworm, oriental leafworm moth, cluster caterpillar. The beet armyworm originated in Southeast Asia. this photo they have eaten the top surface of the leaf. Insect Pests. Mostly, they feed at night. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Noctuidae: Hadeninae. Spodoptera litura Name Synonyms Noctua litura Fabricius, 1775 Prodenia litura (Fabricius, 1775) Homonyms Spodoptera litura Fabricius, 1775 Common names Asian Cotton Leafworm in English 斜紋夜盜蛾 in language. Distribution. Identification of the pest. 2008 , Milano et al. Qin H, Ye Z, Huang S, Ding J, Luo R (2004) The correlations of the different host plants with preference level, life duration and survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). Field resistance of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and four newer chemistry insecticides in Hunan, China. Mature caterpillar of In these situations, do the following: AUTHORS Helen Tsatsia & Grahame JacksonPhoto 2 S Kumar, Secretariat of the Pacific Community. If there are many large caterpillars, and damage looks likely, let chickens into the garden. Journal of … They vary in colour: pale green at first, then dark green to brown (Photo 4). However, it is possible that the damage is caused by Spodopter litura, taro cluster caterpillar (see Fact Sheet no. Fabricius. Alternatively, destroy the eggs and/or caterpillars by rubbing them with a hand or another leaf. The caterpillars chew large areas of the leaf and, when numerous, can defoliate a crop. Synthetic pyrethroids are likely to be effective, but will also kill natural enemies. Authority: (Fabricius) Other scientific names. Category: Spodoptera litura. Later, they become solitary and eat all the leaf, including the petioles. Class: Insecta: Order: Lepidoptera: Family: Noctuidae . Android Edition Caterpillars of Spodoptera litura have eaten through the leaf of Alocasia macrorrhizos, from the under surface, leaving the top waxy layer. Look for the egg masses: they are relatively easy to see against the dark green of the leaves. southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. litura: Taro caterpillar • S. mauritia: Lawn armyworm. The forewings are grey to reddish brown with a strongly variegated pattern. Later, the larvae spread in the field causing defoliation. Mangaia: fieldspecimen+photo, to light at Ivirua motel, 2006/5, G.McCormack with ID as Spodoptera litura. It is recorded from Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. If the eggs are laid on a plant that is inedible, the young caterpillars drop silken threads and are carried on the wind to other potential hosts. S. littoralis is found widely in Africa, Mediterranean Europe and Middle Eastern countries.It is a highly polyphagous organism that is a pest of many cultivated plants and crops. Nevertheless, beet armyworm invades the southern half of the United States (Maryland to Colorado to northern California, and south) annual… Spodoptera litura. 3. Taro cluster caterpillar, taro armyworm, tobacco cutworm, tropical armyworm. Spodoptera littoralis, also referred to as the African cotton leafworm or Egyptian cotton leafworm or Mediterranean brocade, is a species of moth in the family Noctuidae. Chin J Eco-Agric 12: 40–42. Vernacular names [ edit wikidata 'Category:Spodoptera litura' linked to current category] [ edit wikidata 'Spodoptera litura' main topic of 'Category:Spodoptera litura'] English : Oriental Leafworm Moth. The caterpillars moult five times during 15-30 days, depending on the temperature. Spodoptera litura damage on Basella species under protected cropping. Cited by 66 (Based on Google Scholar [2017-09-01]). Spodoptera litura is an important polyphagous insect pest that causes widespread economic … The mobile application is available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes. The broad host range of the herbivore is due to its ability to downregulate plant defense across different plants. Photo 4. In this fact sheet, it is assumed to be Spodoptera exigua. Nishida, Gordon M., ed, 2002: null. Spodoptera litura Name Synonyms Noctua litura Fabricius, 1775 Prodenia litura (Fabricius, 1775) Homonyms Spodoptera litura Fabricius, 1775 Common names Asian Cotton Leafworm in English 斜紋夜盜蛾 in language. The moths can fly up to 1.5 km a night. They are attracted to light. Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) Taxonomic position. It rarely overwinters in areas where frost kills its host plants. Taro cluster caterpillar, taro armyworm, tobacco cutworm, tropical armyworm. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 12: 100pp. They are only needed when the natural enemies have been destroyed by cyclones, droughts, or when plantings are in isolated places.
Haddock Nutrition Data,
Ge® 230/208 Volt Built-in Cool-only Room Air Conditioner Manual,
How To Clean Squid Tentacles,
Amancio Ortega Gaona,
Washi Tape Png Transparent,
Introduction To Quality Attributes,
Cbt Workbook Pdf,