Arabic Language Day World Arabic Language Day is a United Nations (UN) observance that celebrates one of the organization’s 6 official languages – Arabic. Egyptian-Ethiopian War (1875-1877)--Ethiopia retaliated against Egyptian forces attempting to colonize the Red Sea coast. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union, initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern. It was founded back in the first century, considered to be the largest church in the country. Jankowski, James. They're known as the "African Club of the Century". [citation needed] Egypt is considered the leading country in the field of cinema in the Arab world. Established in 1865, it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Three years later Husayn dies and is succeeded by a younger brother, Fuad. Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Abdu al-Hamuli, Almaz and Mahmoud Osman, who influenced the later work of Sayed Darwish, Umm Kulthum, Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Abdel Halim Hafez whose age is considered the golden age of music in Egypt and the whole Arab world. Egyptian life expectancy at birth was 73.20 years in 2011, or 71.30 years for males and 75.20 years for females. The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music, which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world. Colorado State University and Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources. Fried onions can be also added to kushari. In recent years, Coptic Christians, which make up around 10 percent of Egypt’s population, were exposed to a steady uptick in attacks from Islamist militants. Dunne, Michele (January 2006). It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. [225] Its population grew rapidly from 1970 to 2010 due to medical advances and increases in agricultural productivity[226] enabled by the Green Revolution. The adult literacy rate as of July 2014[update] was estimated at 73.9%. Although Cyprus attained independence from the UK on August 16, 1960, Independence Day is celebrated on October 1. Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1999). [263], Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam, Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic, and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words. ft) are diverted into the irrigation canals. Britain … Who are the 5 million refugees and immigrants in Egypt? In 2015, the number of registered Syrian refugees in Egypt was 117,000, a decrease from the previous year. Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid. Ethnic Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting 99.7% of the total population. "Egypt and Early Arab Nationalism" in Rashid Khalidi, ed. On 13 November 1918, within two days of the signing of the armistice, a political party is formed in Cairo by Saad Zaghlul. Photos: Egypt issues celebratory medals for Cairo's 1050th anniversary. Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics. The British declared limited independence for Egypt on February 28, 1922, without involving Zaghlul or other opposition leaders in negotiations as part of a calculated move that allowed certain key details to remain up in the air. Whatever the details of his new constitution, Fuad instinctively inclines to more absolute royal powers. The total inhabited area constitutes only 77,041 km², putting the physiological density at over 1,200 people per km2, similar to Bangladesh. [257], Of the Christian population in Egypt over 90% belong to the native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, an Oriental Orthodox Christian Church. Finally, on October 9, 1984, five years after the dissolution of the federation, the gold eagle of Saladin—12th-century ruler of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine—was substituted for the hawk. Egypt, or officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a Mediterranean country and has one of the longest histories of any country. Throughout the 19th century, the ruling dynasty of Egypt had spent vast sums of money on the infrastructural development of Egypt. There was a noticeable decline of the infant mortality rate (during the 1970s to the 1980s the infant mortality rate was 101-132/1000 live births, in 2000 the rate was 50-60/1000, and in 2008 it was 28-30/1000). [292] In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 4.66% of the country's GDP. [288] Demand soon outstripped the level of available state resources, causing the quality of public education to deteriorate. Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. After the British made Egypt into one of the British colonies, the Egyptians started efforts to free their kingdom from British. One of the party's main principles, the demand for the merging of Egypt and the Sudan, guarantees friction with the British government. Other faiths and minority Muslim sects practised by Egyptians, such as the small Baháʼí Faith and Ahmadiyya communities, are not recognised by the state and face persecution by the government, which labels these groups a threat to Egypt's national security. The once-vibrant and ancient Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared, with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious or other occasions and tourism. [151][152], Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. The main foreign languages taught in schools, by order of popularity, are English, French, German and Italian. Eventually, Britain sided with the Ottomans to bring Egypt back into the Ottoman fold. The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in 1881. Egypt - Egypt - Return to authoritarianism: Sisi’s ascent to the presidency marked a return to the Mubarak era’s autocratic style of government and a defeat for the democratic aspirations that had helped drive the uprising in 2011. However, independence was only recognized by Portugal on 10 September 1974 as a result of the Algiers Accord of Aug. 26, 1974. In 2009, there were 16.04 physicians and 33.80 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants. Access to healthcare in both urban and rural areas greatly improved and immunisation programs are now able to cover 98% of the population. After that, democracy took over. Cromer's authoritarian attitudes and his tendency to work only with Egypt's traditional ruling class (he learns Turkish but not Arabic) put him at odds with the continuing demands of the Egyptian nationalists. In the run-up to World War II the Italian aggression on either side of Egypt and the Sudan, in. and may be that helped Nasser propaganda compaign. [232] Egyptian government claims that a half-million Syrian refugees live in Egypt are thought to be exaggerated. 1956 is the year when all the british troops left Egypt. Egypt from Independence to Revolution, 1919-1952 (Syracuse UP, 1991). Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. Vernacular poetry is perhaps the most popular literary genre among Egyptians, represented by the works of Ahmed Fouad Negm (Fagumi), Salah Jaheen and Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi. Fava bean is also used in making falafel (also known as "ta‘miya"), which may have originated in Egypt and spread to other parts of the Middle East. During the intervening twelve years the struggle between Wafd and the king continues. (Jerusalem), "Massive Israel protests hit universities" (Egyptian Mail, 16 March 2010) "According to most Egyptians, almost 31 years after a peace treaty was signed between Egypt and Israel, having normal ties between the two countries is still a potent accusation and Israel is largely considered to be an enemy country". [234][235] It forms a separate branch among the family of Afroasiatic languages. Kitchener was succeeded by Sir Henry McMahon, and he by Sir Reginald Wingate, both with the title of high commissioner. The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the 1930s. Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the 1950s and 1960s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world. It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. [236] Egypt also has the largest Christian population in the Middle East and North Africa. The Cambridge History Of Egypt Volume 2 Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the end of the twentieth century (1998) pp 217–84 on 1879–1923. In addition, ful medames (mashed fava beans) is one of the most popular dishes. There are a few British deaths. Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. Here's what it does", "Obama cancels military exercises, condemns violence in Egypt", "Business as usual for Egypt and the West", "Egypt 'has key role' in fight against Islamic State – Kerry", "Exclusive: Egypt's Sisi asks for U.S. help in fighting terrorism", "Egypt's Sisi congratulates US President elect Donald Trump", "Trump Shifts Course on Egypt, Praising Its Authoritarian Leader", "Russia, Egypt seal preliminary arms deal worth $3.5 billion: agency", "Russia to boost trade with Egypt after Western food ban", "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies? Royal Ramesside Residence", "On the So-Called Ventive Morpheme in the Akkadian Texts of Amurru", "The Nile Valley 6000–4000 BCE Neolithic", Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, "Icelandic Volcano Caused Historic Famine In Egypt, Study Shows", "Treaty of Lausanne – World War I Document Archive", "The 1973 Arab-Israeli War: Arab Policies, Strategies, and Campaigns", "Succession Gives Army a Stiff Test in Egypt", "Mubarak throws presidential race wide open", "Democracy on the Nile: The story of Ayman Nour and Egypt's problematic attempt at free elections", "Hosni Mubarak's pretend democratic election", "United States "Deeply Troubled" by Sentencing of Egypt's Nour", "Egypt: Overview of human rights issues in Egypt", "NDP Insider: Military will ensure transfer of power", "Mubarak Resigns As Egypt's President, Armed Forces To Take Control", "Mubarak Steps Down, Ceding Power to Military", "Egypt crisis: President Hosni Mubarak resigns as leader", "WikiLeaks: Egypt's new man at the top 'was against reform, "The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces: Constitutional Proclamation", "Egyptian Parliament dissolved, constitution suspended", "Egypt's Historic Day Proceeds Peacefully, Turnout High For Elections", "Egypt's new president moves into his offices, begins choosing a Cabinet", "Rallies for, against Egypt president's new powers", "Egypt's President Mursi assumes sweeping powers", "Violence breaks out across Egypt as protesters decry Mohammed Morsi's constitutional 'coup, "Egypt Sees Largest Clash Since Revolution", "Morsi refuses to cancel Egypt's vote on constitution", "Army Ousts Egypt's President; Morsi Denounces 'Military Coup, "Egypt protests: Hundreds killed after police storm pro-Morsi camps", "Abuse claims rife as Egypt admits jailing 16,000 Islamists in eight months", "Egypt sentences 683 to death in latest mass trial of dissidents", "Egyptian court sentences 529 people to death", "Egyptian court sentences Muslim Brotherhood leader to life in prison", "Egypt constitution 'approved by 98.1 percent,, "Egypt's El-Sisi bids military farewell, says he will run for presidency", "Former army chief scores landslide victory in Egypt presidential polls", "Sisi elected Egypt president by landslide", "Egypt election: Sisi secures landslide win", "For Thousands of Years, Egypt Controlled the Nile. Two goals from star player Mohamed Salah in their last qualifying game took Egypt through to the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The Arab Liberation Flag, flown in Egypt from 1952 (the year the Egyptian monarchy was overthrown) to 1958. [291] Arab hackles are raised by the summary treatment dealt out to Lebanese nationalists by the French in 1943, while Zionist demands on Palestine are also seen as cause for alarm. Egypt is currently opening new research institutes for the aim of modernising research in the nation, the most recent example of which is Zewail City of Science and Technology. It remains in use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes. (10 February 2017). Egyptian belly dance has two main styles – raqs baladi and raqs sharqi. The three main museums in Egypt are The Egyptian Museum which has more than 120,000 items, the Egyptian National Military Museum and the 6th of October Panorama. Egypt became independent on February 28, 1922. The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM), also known as the Giza Museum, is an under construction museum that will house the largest collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts in the world, it has been described as the world's largest archaeological museum.